The archaeological findings show that the territory of Dolj was inhabited continuously since the Palaeolithic era. The first documented evidence dates back to 1444, where the district is mentioned under the name Judetul De Balt, located in the Danube plain, stretching from Swamp Blahnitsa, located today within the county of Mehedinti to today’s rural community Bistrets in Dolj.

Dolj, in the old version Dolzhiy, comes from the Slavic language - Dole = Down, to which was added Zhiy, resulting in the formation Dolzhiy, ie Lower Jiu. In the villages old people still call it Zhiy instead Jiu. Zhiy is the plural of Jiu, which is formed by the joining in Aninoasa (in Petrosani, Hunedoara region) of the rivers West and East Jiu.

For Oltenia it is said that it is a land of rebels. Rebels are present in all Balkan countries as fighters for justice against local officials and foreign oppressors. They were passed over in silence in the era of kings, considered as a factor causing disorder, treated with caution by the communists, on the one hand they were considered as the progenitors of the idea of class struggle, on the other hand they were considered as unsuitable example for the society, rebels and Pandurs were always been true folk heroes.

Especially in the period of nearly one hundred years between the Treaty of Pasarovits when Oltenia came under Austrian occupation and the Revolution led by Tudor Vladimirescu, rebels were multiplying and often were the only solution against repression and injustice. In Oltenia (the true land of rebels) they appear soon after 1560 and are connected with the name of Baba Novak, later - with the legendary Gruia Novak (one of his sons), with Yoegu Yorgovan . Rebels grew rapidly, becoming a vogue during the Austrian occupation until after the revolution of Tudor Vladimirescu. About 300 years (between 1560-1860) there was a long and continuous series of famous rebels. The time of rebels set with the Unification of the Principalities together with the revolutionary Popa Shapka. He was the last who raised the rebel bands to battle.